Paul E. Black, D. Richard Kuhn, and Carl J. Williams,
Quantum Computing and Communications,
Advances in Computers, Academic Press, vol. 56, pages 189-244, 2002.
A quantum computer, if built, will be to an ordinary computer as a
hydrogen bomb is to gunpowder, at least for some types of
computations. Today no quantum computer exists, beyond laboratory
prototypes capable of solving only tiny problems, and many practical
problems remain to be solved. Yet the theory of quantum computing
has advanced significantly in the past decade, and is becoming a
significant discipline in itself. This article explains the concepts
and basic mathematics behind quantum computers and some of the
promising approaches for building them. We also discuss quantum
communication, an essential component of future quantum information
processing, and quantum cryptography, widely expected to be the first
practical application for quantum information technology.
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