Paul E. Black, Kelly M. Hall, Michael D. Jones, Trent N. Larson, and Phillip J. Windley, A Brief Introduction to Formal Methods, Proceedings of the IEEE 1996 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC '96), San Diego, California, USA (May 1996), IEEE, 1996, pages 377-380.

    As hardware designs grow in size and complexity, current design methods are proving less adequate. Current methods for specification, design, and test are typically empirical or informal, that is, they are based on experience and argument. Formal methods are solidly based on mathematical logic systems and precise rules of inference. Formal methods offer a discipline which complements current methods so designers can successfully meet the demand for high performance systems.
    Formal methods covers a broad and diverse set of techniques aimed at improving computer correctness. This paper explains the role of specifications and implementation models in formal methods, and different approaches to proving their correspondence. We refer to excellent overview papers and cite some recent successful examples of using formal methods in hardware design.

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